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抗侧向荷载的结构体系英文文献和参考文献

时间:2021-01-02 20:16来源:毕业论文
Structural Systems to resist lateral loads Commonly Used structural Systems With loads measured in tens of thousands kips, there is little room in the design of high-rise buildings for excessively complex thoughts. Indeed, the better high-r

Structural Systems to resist lateral loads Commonly Used structural Systems With loads measured in tens of thousands kips, there is little room in the design of high-rise buildings for excessively complex thoughts. Indeed, the better high-rise buildings carry the universal traits of simplicity of thought and clarity of expression.61741

It does not follow that there is no room for grand thoughts. Indeed, it is with such grand thoughts that the new family of high-rise buildings has evolved. Perhaps more important, the new concepts of but a few years ago have become commonplace in today’ s technology.

Omitting some concepts that are related strictly to the materials of construction, the most commonly used structural systems used in high-rise buildings can be categorized as follows:

1. Moment-resisting frames.

2. Braced frames, including eccentrically braced frames.

3. Shear walls, including steel plate shear walls.

4. Tube-in-tube structures.

5. Tube-in-tube structures.

6. Core-interactive structures.

7. Cellular or bundled-tube systems.

Particularly with the recent trend toward more complex forms, but in response also to the need for increased stiffness to resist the forces from wind and earthquake, most high-rise buildings have structural systems built up of combinations of frames, braced bents, shear walls, and related systems. Further, for the taller buildings, the majorities are composed of interactive elements in three-dimensional arrays.

The method of combining these elements is the very essence of the design process for high-rise buildings. These combinations need evolve in response to environmental, functional, and cost considerations so as to provide efficient structures that provoke the architectural development to new heights. This is not to say that imaginative structural design can create great architecture. To the contrary, many examples of fine architecture have been created with only moderate support from the structural engineer, while only fine structure, not great architecture, can be developed without the genius and the leadership of a talented architect. In any event, the best of both is needed to formulate a truly extraordinary design of a high-rise building.

While comprehensive discussions of these seven systems are generally available in the literature, further discussion is warranted here .The essence of the design process is distributed throughout the discussion.

Moment-Resisting Frames

Perhaps the most commonly used system in low-to medium-rise buildings, the moment-resisting frame, is characterized by linear horizontal and vertical members connected essentially rigidly at their joints. Such frames are used as a stand-alone system or in combination with other systems so as to provide the needed resistance to horizontal loads. In the taller of high-rise buildings, the system is likely to be found inappropriate for a stand-alone system, this because of the difficulty in mobilizing sufficient stiffness under lateral forces.

 Analysis can be accomplished by STRESS, STRUDL, or a host of other appropriate computer programs; analysis by the so-called portal method of the cantilever method has no place in today’s technology.

Because of the intrinsic flexibility of the column/girder intersection, and because preliminary designs should aim to highlight weaknesses of systems, it is not unusual to use center-to-center dimensions for the frame in the preliminary analysis. Of course, in the latter phases of design, a realistic appraisal in-joint deformation is essential.

 

Braced Frames

The braced frame, intrinsically stiffer than the moment –resisting frame, finds also greater application to higher-rise buildings. The system is characterized by linear horizontal, vertical, and diagonal members, connected simply or rigidly at their joints. It is used commonly in conjunction with other systems for taller buildings and as a stand-alone system in low-to medium-rise buildings. 抗侧向荷载的结构体系英文文献和参考文献:http://www.lwfree.com/fanyi/lunwen_67654.html

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