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N2O5硝解均三嗪衍生物制备黑索今RDX的研究

时间:2017-01-10 10:01来源:毕业论文
论文用绿色的硝化方法。设计了以乙腈和三聚甲醛为原料,以浓硫酸为催化剂来合成三(N-乙酰基)六氢化均三嗪(TRAT),并应用 N2O5/有机溶剂和N2O5/HNO3两种硝解体系硝解这两种均三嗪衍生物

摘要黑索今(RDX)是一种重要的高能炸药,它的原料来源广泛,几乎不受自然资源的限制,作为高能炸药,威力大、猛度高、化学稳定性好。但随着环境问题的日益严峻,炸药生产中的废酸处理成为一个难题。因此,寻找一种绿色硝化剂进行清洁硝化成为硝化反应研究的重点,其目的是提高反应转化率和硝化产物选择性,实现原子经济化,减少环境污染。N2O5作为一种优良的硝化剂,已被广泛应用于各种芳烃化合物的硝化反应中。有N2O5存在的硝化体系具有反应速率快、用酸量小、硝化产率高等优点。
本课题采用绿色的硝化方法。设计了以乙腈和三聚甲醛为原料,以浓硫酸为催化剂来合成三(N-乙酰基)辣氢化均三嗪(TRAT),并应用 N2O5/有机溶剂和N2O5/HNO3两种硝解体系硝解这两种均三嗪衍生物,制备出RDX。探讨了工艺条件。实验发现,两种硝解体系均能较好的硝解均三嗪衍生物。
通过红外、质谱、核磁等分析手段对所合成的化合物的结构表征,结果表明所得的产物符合要求,所合成的化合物的结构、性能指标与设计目标要求一致。可以预测方案的可行性。5148

关键词 黑索金,五氧化二氮,硝化,绿色硝解
毕业论文设计说明书(论文)外文摘要
Title      Synthesis of RDX via nitrolysis 1,3,5-triacyhexahydro-s-triazines with N2O5
Abstract
RDX is an important explosive of high energy. Sources of raw materials are broad.. RDX is an important nitramine explosive. RDX haslarge power and a good chemical stability. Environmental protection is becoming important now. Waste acid treatment has become a problem. Therefore, searching for a green nitrolysis agent has become important in explosives research. As a good nitrating agent, N2O5 has been widely used in the nitration of aromatic compounds. The nitrification systems, including N2O5, have many advantages, such as fast reaction rate,small amount of acid and high nitrification ability.
In this paper a method for the preparation of  RDX was proposed, which complied with the requirements of the environmental protection. Choosing a method to synthesis hexahydro-1,3,5-triacetyl-s-triazine (TRAT). Sulfuric acid was used as catalyst.And then preparation of RDX was attempted, using dinitrogen pentroxide. Choose the optimization of process conditions.
The structures of the synthetic products were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy(IR), Mass Spectra (MS) and }H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1HNMR). The results proved that the structures and performance indexes of the products conformed to the design requirement and the synthesize way was novel and practical.

Keywords :hexogen,dinitrogen pentoxide,nitration, green nitrolysis
目  次

1引言    1
1.1  黑索今简介    1
1.1.1  黑索金的结构特征和用途    1
1.1.2  黑索金的物理化学性质    3
1.2  黑索金制备的研究进展及其前景    3
1.2.1  直接硝解法    4
1.2.2  硝酸-硝酸铵法    4
1.2.3  醋酐法(KA法或巴克曼法)    5
1.2.4辣氢化均三嗪法    5
1.2.5  硝酸一硝酸镁法    6
1.2.6  R-盐氧化法    7
1.2.7  其他合成方法    7
1.3  绿色硝解剂的介绍    8
1.3.1  N2O5的基本性质    8
1.3.2  N2O5的制备方法介绍    9
1.4课题的意义    10
2  实验部分    12
2.1  实验条件    12
2.1.1  溶剂与试剂    12
2.1.2  仪器    12 N2O5硝解均三嗪衍生物制备黑索今RDX的研究:http://www.lwfree.com/huaxue/lunwen_2089.html
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