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《乡村医生》的存在主义解读

时间:2020-11-15 15:43来源:英语论文
The Interpretation of A Country Doctor From the Perspective of Existentialism,英语论文《乡村医生》的存在主义解读

本文对弗兰茨·卡夫卡的短篇小说《乡村医生》中的存在主义思想进行了分析。按照让·保罗·萨特的自由选择理论,在第一部分中分别以侍女罗莎、马夫及病孩家属所代表的乡民为对象讨论自由与他者的关系,得出的结论为虽然乡村医生主观上选择去拯救罗莎、病孩和自己,但是由于“处境”与“他者”的限制,所以均以失败告终。在第二部分中围绕病孩分析文本所体现的自由与责任观点,并在此基础上论证《乡村医生》的主题,即对现代人生存处境的尴尬与荒谬的担忧。59584   
毕业论文关键词  《乡村医生》    自由选择   他者   责任           
Abstract A Country Doctor is one of Franz Kafka’s masterpieces, and it ranks among the literary treasures in  German  history.  This paper  tries to  discuss  it  from  the perspective of existentialism. Based on  Jean-Paul  Sartre's freedom concept,  the author  studies  the relationship between freedom and others in  the first section. Centering on ―the others‖ including the servant girl Rose, the groom and people in the district represented by the boy’s family, the author concludes that although the country doctor has made choices to take positive actions, he still fails to rescue Rose, the sick boy and himself as he is in the limitation of the given ―situation‖ and ―the others‖. In the second section, this paper analyses the short story from the angle of freedom and responsibility, which illustrates that  the theme of  A Country Doctor  is the concern for the living conditions in the absurd and embarrassing situation of the modern society. 
Keywords    A Country Doctor      Free Choice      the Other     Responsibility     

  Table of Contents  

1    Introduction  ..  1 

1.1    A Brief Introduction to Franz Kafka and Literary Career   1 

1.2    A Brief Introduction to A Country Doctor    2 

1.3    A Brief Outline of this Paper ..  3 

2    Literature Review..  3 

3    Theoretical Framework  ..  4 

3.1    Introduction  ..  4 

3.2    Sartre's Connotation of Freedom ..  5 

3.2.1    Freedom of Choice and Action  ..  5 

3.2.2    Freedom and Facticity.  6 

3.2.3    Freedom and Responsibility   6 

4    Analysis..  6 

4.1    Freedom and Others: Hell is the Other People ..  6 

4.2    Freedom and Responsibility   9 

Conclusion .  11 

Acknowledgements    12 

Bibliography .  13 

1 Introduction 1.1 A Brief Introduction to Franz Kafka and Literary Career Since the 20th  century, German-speaking countries  have been  playing  increasingly important roles in world literature. Thomas Mann, Franz Kafka and Bertolt Brecht are recognized as  the most representative writers. Moreover, Kafka,  along with Marcel Proust and James Joyce, is considered as the important founder of Western Modernist Literature.  Kafka is regarded by critics as one of the most influential authors of the 20th century. His main contribution to world literature consists of three parts. The first part is short stories published during his lifetime: Contemplation  (a collection  including eighteen  short stories), The Stoker, The Judgment, The Metamorphosis, In the Penal Colony, A Country Doctor  (a collection  including  fourteen  short stories),  A Hunger Artist (including  four short stories),  and  The  Bucket  Rider.  Secondly,  about thirty-four posthumous short stories,  such as Description of a Struggle, A Hole in the Ground. The third part is  three  unpublished  and unfinished  novels, Amerika,  The Trial,  and Castle.  According to Sun Kunrong (1983), Kafka’s short story, based on the theme, can be broadly pided into  the following four categories. The first is to reveal  the  social reality of the absurdity,  irrationality, and pain of existence and  the sense of original sin. In addition, it is quite usual for Kafka to expose the phenomenon of ―alienation‖ in a capitalist society which human beings cannot grasp their destiny due to the heavy persecution. Next is the description of  loneliness and  fear  in a capitalist society that the petit bourgeoisie cannot find a way out. Moreover, the last is to reflect the evil of the reactionary ruling classes, and  the hatred of  alien invasion, and  to some extent, also expressing the disappointment with the motherland. 《乡村医生》的存在主义解读:http://www.lwfree.com/yingyu/lunwen_64846.html

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