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威廉•福克纳的《熊》中人与自然的关系

时间:2017-06-12 20:56来源:英语论文
An analysis of the Relationship Between Human Beings and Nature in William Faulkner’s The Bear from Eco-criticism Perspective从生态批评的角度看威廉•福克纳的《熊》中人与自然的关系

摘要威廉•福克纳是诺贝尔文学奖获得者,是美国现代最主要的小说家之一。他的作品不仅关注人的内心世界还注重外部世界以及人与自然的关系。《熊》就是其中一部伟大的文学经典。《熊》讲述的是一个狩猎的故事!小说不仅反应了人与自然的和谐,同时也揭示了现代文明发展下人与自然的冲突!基于生态批评中“荒野”的命题,本文试图从生态批评的角度,以《熊》中的荒野描写、荒野意象以及叙事情节为依据,探究荒野的生态体现、生态内涵以及生态启示,以期给予现代人精神上的启迪,促进生态环境保护运动的发展,实现人与自然和谐相处。10143
关键词:威廉•福克纳;生态批评;和谐相处
Abstract  William Faulkner, the winner of Nobel Prize for literature, is one of the most important and world-renowned modern novelists in America. His works not only concern about people’s inner world, but also pay more attention to the outside world and the relationship between mankind and the nature world. The Bear is a great literary classic among those works. The Bear tells us a story about hunting, but it’s not only talks about hunting, but also reveals the conflict between mankind and the nature world under the modern civilization.Based on the concept of the wilderness in eco-criticism, this paper attempts to explore the ecological embodiments, ecological connotations and ecological implications of the wilderness through the wilderness description, wilderness images and narrative plot in The Bear, in order to give the modern spiritual enlightenment, and to promote the development of the ecological movement, and to achieve the harmony between the human and nature.
Key words: William Faulkner; Eco-criticism; harmonious  
Contents
摘 要     i
Abstract    ii
I. Introduction    1
II. Ecological Embodiments of the “Wilderness” in The Bear    2
  2.1 Destruction of Big Forest    2
  2.2 The Old Ben    3
  2.3 Sam Fathers and Boon Hogganbeck    4
III. Ecological Implication of the “Wilderness” in The Bear    6
  3.1 Peaceful Forest    6
  3.2 Symbol for Human Desire to Conquer Nature    8
IV. Ecological Revelations of the “Wilderness” in The Bear    9
  4.1 Industrial Civilization Destroys the Wilderness     10
  4.2 Harmonious Relationship Between Human and the Wilderness    11
V. Conclusion    12
Bibliography    15
Acknowledgements    16
An analysis of the Relationship Between Human Beings and Nature in William Faulkner’s The Bear from Eco-criticism Perspective
I. Introduction
William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) is an American writer of novels, short stories, poetry and occasional screenplays. The majority of his works are based on his native state of Mississippi. Faulkner is considered as one of the most important writers of the Southern literature of the United States, along with Mark Twain, Robert Penn Warren, Flannery O’Connor, Truman Capote, Eudora Welty, Thomas Wolfe, Harper Lee and Tennessee Williams. Though his work was published as early in 1919, and largely during the 1920s and 1930s, Faulkner was relatively unknown until receiving the 1949 Nobel Prize in Literature. In all his life, he writes a total of nearly one hundred short stories and nineteen novels. His fifteen novels and the majority of stories happened in Yoknapatawpha County, known as Yoknapatawpha Saga in which The Bear is an excellent story collected in Go Down,Moses.
   Faulkner was raised in and heavily influenced by the state of Mississippi, as well as by the history and culture of the American South altogether. Although several versions of The Bear existed, the one that most commonly read comes from William Faulkner’s 1942 novel, Go Down, Moses. Isaac (Ike) McCaslin, the young hero of The Bear, remains a central figure throughout the novel as well. The story of a young man’s development against a background of vanishing wilderness is well received by readers and critics alike. Today it appears in many anthologies. Faulkner does not add the long fourth section of the story until it appeared in Go Down, Moses, and he argues that its primary role is to connect the story to the rest of the novel. If read alone, the fourth section of The Bear should be omitted. Yet the fourth section puts into context the relationships and events that contribute to young Ike’s upbringing in the woods. It is learned that Major deSpain and Colonel Compson received their commissions in the Civil War, an historical event of resounding importance, in addition, Ike’s decisions in the fourth section are primarily due to the lessons he learns in the wilderness. Thus the fourth section shows how he translates the morality of the woods into social responsibility. Whether read alone or as part of the longer novel in which it eventually appeared, The Bear provides a unique glimpse into the Mississippi region where Faulkner, himself an avid hunter, was born and raised. As Ike McCaslin learns about his family’s past, Faulkner portrays a varied cast of characters in a tale about the wilderness destroyed by human greed, and a man who refuses to further this destructive trend. 威廉•福克纳的《熊》中人与自然的关系:http://www.lwfree.com/yingyu/lunwen_9110.html
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